«Geostorie», anno XIX, nn. 1-3, 2011

Indice

Laura Cassi
La Pubblicazione de La Terra di Giovanni Marinelli. Una storia travagliata, pp. 5-14 – Abstract 

LA PUBBLICAZIONE DE LA TERRA DI GIOVANNI MARINELLI. UNA STORIA TRAVAGLIATA
Le indagini condotte nell’ambito di un progetto di ricerca sulla storia dell’Istituto di Studi superiori pratici e di perfezionamento, che precedette l’attuale Università di Firenze, hanno portato alla scoperta di un interessante carteggio inedito relativo alle vicissitudini legate alla pubblicazione del grande trattato La Terra (1883-1902) di Giovanni Marinelli, volto alla descrizione integrale dei paesi del mondo, la cui redazione fu un’impresa gigantesca, anche perché l’iter del lavoro fu travagliato per vari motivi (scadenze, numero di pagine non rispettati, ecc.). Il carteggio è costituito da un nutrito corpus di lettere indirizzate a Marinelli dall’Editore Vallardi – dapprima gentili e quasi cerimoniose ma via via più pressanti fino alla minaccia di querele e diffide – e dalle risposte di Marinelli e vari collaboratori all’editore, spesso contenenti lagnanze e solleciti di pagamento. Un Promemoria autografo di Marinelli illustra puntualmente questa tormentata storia, le molte amarezze e fatiche legate alla vicenda. Tale manoscritto si configura come una sorta di testamento, espressione non solo della vicenda scientifica ma anche di quella umana, da cui emerge lo stato d’animo di un Marinelli amareggiato, offeso e preda di un intenso lavorio interiore.

THE PUBLICATION OF LA TERRA OF GIOVANNI MARINELLI. A TROUBLED HISTORY
The surveys conducted within a research project on the history of the Institute of Practical and Advanced Studies, which preceded the present University of Florence, have allowed to discover an interesting, unpublished correspondence related to the publication of La Terra (1883-1902), a great treaty by Giovanni Marinelli, to which collaborated the best known geographers of that time. The preparation of this great treaty, dedicated to the full description of all countries of the world, was a gigantic undertaking, troubled for several reasons. The correspondence consists of a large body of letters addressed by the Editor Vallardi to Marinelli: these letters are polite and almost ceremonious first, but gradually they become more pressing and come to the threat of lawsuits and injunctions. There are also the replies sent by Marinelli and various collaborators to the Editor. An autograph Reminder by Marinelli shows punctually this troubled history, and the many disappointments and hardships related to this publication. The manuscript takes the form of a kind of testament, an expression not only scientific but also human of this story. What emerges is a very bitter state of mind, hurt by an intense inner struggle.

Francesco Surdich
Il raid automobilistico Pechino-Parigi nella relazione di Luigi Barzini, pp. 15-40 – Abstract 

IL RAID AUTOMOBILISTICO PECHINO-PARIGI NELLA RELAZIONE DI LUIGI BARZINI
Il lavoro rappresenta l’analisi del resoconto delle corrispondenze inviate strada facendo al Corriere della Sera e al Daily Telegraph da Luigi Barzini senior, raccolte poi in un volume, redatte nel corso del raid automobilistico Pechino-Parigi, dipanatosi lungo un percorso tormentato e insidioso di ben 16.000 chilometri, al quale il giornalista prese parte nel 1907 assieme a Scipione Borghese per dimostrare, assieme a tutti i partecipanti, che l’automobile sarebbe diventata un mezzo di locomozione competitivo, nel corso di pochi anni, rispetto alla ferrovia ed alla navigazione. In ventitré agili capitoli questa relazione intendeva richiamare l’attenzione, avvalendosi di una scrittura veloce e diretta, fatta di periodi brevi e ritmati, sulla capacità di percepire e descrivere i territori attraversati e le persone e le popolazioni incontrate, riducendo al minimo i contatti, da un angolo di osservazione fino ad allora piuttosto inusuale, la vettura in movimento, attraverso un procedere ed un osservare inevitabilmente frettolosi, facendo prevalere una percezione di natura piuttosto superficiale ed istintiva, determinata nella maggior parte dei casi da reazioni sensoriali ed emotive.

THE BEIJING-PARIS AUTOMOBILE RACE IN THE REPORT BY LUIGI BARZINI
The work is the analysis of the report of the correspondence sent by Luigi Barzini senior to Corriere della Sera and The Daily Telegraph, later collected in book. The notes were compiled during the Beijing-Paris automobile race, a very insidious and tormented journey 16,000 km, of which the journalist attended in 1907 along with Scipione Borghese. Barzini wanted to prove that the car in a few years would become a competitive means of transportation, compared to rail and shipping. by writing fast and direct, the agile twenty-three chapters of the report point to the ability to perceive and describe local landscapes, people and the people you meet, but the angle of observation was still unusual, the car moving. From this is derived a cursory observation of prevailing perceptions superficial and instinctive, in most cases determined by sensory and emotional reactions.

Luca Alessandri
Karakorum 1929: una spedizione italiana tra aspettative e traguardi, pp. 41-109 – Abstract 

KARAKORUM 1929: AN ITALIAN EXPEDITION BETWEEN EXPECTATIONS AND GOALS
Through the analysis of the correspondence preserved in the archives of the Italian Geographical Society, this article presents a chronological reconstruction of the preparatory phase of the expedition to the Karakorum in 1929, as well as the problems about the publication of scientific results. A special care has been reserved to the last months of 1927, when suddenly Giotto Dainelli gave up the leading of the expedition, due to delays in the organization and especially for hard relations with someone of the participants. After his defection, Aimone of Savoy-Aosta, Duke of Spoleto, was called to lead the explorers. Also interesting is the correlation that linked this trip to the polar expedition of Umberto Nobile in 1928. The disastrous end of the airship «Italy» flight, in fact, has contributed significantly to modify the design of the Central Asia trip, originally devised as a mission to conquer K2 summit – an ideal achievement of the attempt made in 1909 by Luigi Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of Abruzzi – and finally changed into scientific exploration, as was already advanced by the same Dainelli. During the reconnaissance on Baltoro glacier and in Shaksgam valley (enhanced by a largely original photographic heritage) Ardito Desio carried his work independently from Aimone of Savoy-Aosta. The friulian geologist name regularly appears in the correspondence of the months following the trip: In fact, he becomes the main contact during the laborious assembling of scientific reports for official publication.

KARAKORUM 1929: UNA EXPEDICIÓN ITALIANA ENTRE EXPECTATIVAS Y ÉXITOS
A través del análisis de los papeles guardados en los archivos de la Sociedad Geográfica Italiana, se reconstruye la cronología de la fase preparatoria de la expedición de 1929 al Kararakorum, junto con el haz de problemas relativos a la publicación de los resultados científicos. Especialmente importantes son los últimos meses de 1927 en los que hubo la renuncia al mando de la expedición por parte de Dainelli. Resulta también interesante la relación que se estableció entre este viaje y la expedición polar de Umberto Nobile de 1928.

Annalisa D’Ascenzo
L’ampliamento dell’orizzonte geografico e le rappresentazioni cartografiche nel XVI secolo. I mappamondi di Urbano Monte, pp. 111-140 – Abstract 

L’AMPLIAMENTO DELL’ORIZZONTE GEOGRAFICO E LE RAPPRESENTAZIONI CARTOGRAFICHE NEL XVI SECOLO. I MAPAMONDI DI URBANO MONTE
Il nobile milanese Urbano Monte, spettatore dell’ambasciata giapponese giunta in Italia nel 1587 per rendere omaggio al papa ed alla cristianità, rimase tanto affascinato dall’incontro con i principi orientali da dedicarsi alla realizzazione di un trattato geografico e cartografico che avrebbe dovuto dare conto, ad un largo pubblico, delle conoscenze sulla forma e le dimensioni della Terra che nell’ultimo secolo si era enormemente dilatata grazie alle grandi esplorazioni geografiche e ai viaggi oceanici portati avanti delle più avanzate nazioni europee. L’impresa lo impegnò per circa un ventennio, tra la stesura del testo dei quattro tomi e il disegno di oltre sessanta carte, manoscritte e colorate nella prima versione, a stampa nella seconda, per di più in due differenti sistemi di proiezione, le correzioni e le aggiunte. Le carte a stampa testimoniano l’intenzione di pubblicare l’intera opera, purtroppo Monte non riuscì per motivi personali ed economici a portare a compimento il suo progetto. Le copie conosciute e studiate del Trattato, una interamente manoscritta conservata presso la Biblioteca del Seminario Arcivescovile di Milano in Venegono Inferiore, l’altra con il testo scritto a mano e le tavole incise su rame custodita nella Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana, testimoniano l’impegno dell’autore, le difficoltà tecniche e di reperimento delle informazioni più aggiornate sulle recenti esperienze odeporiche, ma soprattutto il conflitto che ha caratterizzato la cultura geografica e cartografica della prima età moderna, fra un sapere di stampo medievale, fortemente ancorato ai classici e frammisto di reale e di fantastico, e il progresso determinato dalle grandi esplorazioni e dall’apertura dell’orizzonte geografico.

THE EXPANSION OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL HORIZON AND CARTOGRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. URBANO MONTE AND HIS MAPAMONDI
The milanese nobleman Urbano Monte in the 1587 was a spectator of the Japanese embassy arrived in Italy to honor Pope and Christianity. He was fascinated by the meeting and decided to make a geographical and cartographical treaty, for a wide audience, with the most recent discoveries about size and shape of the Earth. The geographical horizon had expanded in the last century by the geographical explorations and ocean voyages undertaken by the most advanced European nations. The work occupied him for about twenty years, including the writing of four volumes and the design of more than sixty maps, manuscripts and stained in the first version, printed in the second, in two different systems of projection, corrections and additions. The printed maps evidence the intention to publish the entire work, unfortunately Monte failed to carry out his project for personal and economic reasons. Known and studied copies of the Trattato, a full manuscript preserved at the Biblioteca of the Seminario Arcivescovile di Milano at Venegono Inferiore, the other, with handwritten text and maps engraved on copper plates, kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, demonstrate the commitment of the author, technical difficulties and the search for the latest information on recent travel experiences. But the most important is the conflict that has characterized the geographical and cartographical culture of the early modern period, including a medieval knowledge, strongly rooted in classical and mixed real and fantastic, and the progress determined by the great explorations and opening geographical horizon.

Piercarlo Cintori
La rappresentazione del territorio estense nell’opera cartografica di Magini, Vandelli e Carandini: esempi di plagi e truffe storiche, pp. 141-166 – Abstract 

THE REPRESENTATION OF THE ESTE DUCHY IN THE CARTOGRAPHICAL WORK OF MAGINI, VANDELLI AND CARANDINI. EXAMPLES OF PLAGIARISM AND ANCIENT FRAUDS
In the history of the cartography of Duchy of Modena the fundamental works having introduced meaningful technical variations in the representation of the territory are just three: the first one is by the astronomer G. Antonio Magini in the beginning of 1600, the second one is by Domenico Vandelli in XVIII century, and finally the works of Major Giuseppe Carandini in first 1800. Otherwise all these works have got situations of plagiarism and scheming historical stories. Magini’s most important work was the Atlante geografico d’Italia printed posthumously. This Atlas was intended to include maps of every Italian region with exact nomenclature and historical notes, but for the Este Duchy it was a very hard work because the political changes caused several remakes of the map which was moreover copied for a long time by Dutch, German and French cartographers. Domenico Vandelli, geographer and engineer for the dukes of Modena, produced a wide printed map of Este State where, in the cartouche, he denounced the theft of a map by an imperial officer. About Carandini’s cartographic works the present extract examines as well the «official» cartographic production of the Topographical Office of Este Army (which from 1815 produced an high-level work of relief and cartographic elaborations), as the «misconduct» maps derived from these works.

LA REPRESENTACIÓN DEL DUCADO DE LA CASA DE ESTE EN EL TRABAJO DE MAPEO DE MAGINI, VANDELLI Y CARANDINI. EJEMPLOS DE PLAGIO Y ESTAFAS DE EDAD
En la historia de la cartografía de nuestro territorio hay tres trabajos fundamentales que han aportado significativas diferencias técnicas y de representación: los del matemático y astrónomo G. Antonio Magini de principio de 1600, los del Abad Domenico Vandelli de mediado de 1700 y, por último, los del Mayor Giuseppe Carandini de inicios de 1800. Todos estos trabajos han sufrido plagio y mistificación, y han sido objeto de curiosos e intrigantes acontecimientos históricos. La obra más importante de Magini ha sido, sin lugar a dudas, su obra póstuma: el Atlas Geográfico de Italia (Atlante Geografico d’Italia). El fin último de dicho Atlas fue la recopilación de los mapas de todas las regiones de Italia, con una toponimia precisa y acompañada de notas históricas. Sin embargo, para el Ducado de los Este el trabajo fue una ardua empresa, debido a los cambios históricos que obligaron a realizar varias revisiones de la cartografía que, por otro lado, fue copiada por los cartógrafos holandeses, alemanes y franceses. Domenico Vandelli, geógrafo e ingeniero de los Duques de Módena, elaboró una cartografía de grandes dimensiones del Estado de los Este, en la cual denunció el robo de un informe por parte de un Oficial del Imperio. Por lo que se refiere a las cartografías de Carandini, en este trabajo se tratarán tanto la producción “oficial” del Gabinete Topográfico de los Este (Ufficio Topografico Estense), como las obras “derivadas” de dicha producción.

Orazio La Greca, Pierduilio Maravigna
Le stazioni ferroviarie di Roma. 150 anni di spazialità funzionale, pp. 167-205 – Abstract 

SUMMARY: The railway stations of Rome: 150 years of functional use of space
Railway stations in towns are centers of communications (comunicatio facit civitatem) that can be used with an adjective: political (etymologically from πόλις), commercial, humanitarian, etc., also according to their location (central, suburban), urban transport system, density of inhabitans. Generally, stations need space for parking lots, warehouses, loading sidings, dead-end tracks, etc.; synthetically, they are a geographic fact that can change the urban landscape. Rome has about 50 stations; three are terminal: Termini (the main and central), Porta San Paolo (Roma-Lido) and Piazzale Flaminio (Roma-Viterbo). The others are transit stations; the most important is Tiburtina (oriental area), recently amplified and modernized for “high speed” trains. Some are examined historically, with particular regard for those which are more important and central, for example Termini (built in 1867, modernized in 1950 and 2000), Trastevere (in the beginning more central and terminal), Ostiense (going back to the Thirties of the last century). The others are considered and subdivided according to destinations and their geographical position.

RÉSUMÉ: Les gares de Rome: 150 années d’espaces fonctionnels
Les gares dans les villes sont des centres de communication (comunicatio facit civitatem) qui de temps en temps peut avoir plusieurs significations: communication politique (dans le sens éthymologique du terme πόλις), commercial, humanitaire, etc., égalment en lien à leur localisation (centrale ou périphérique), au réseau des transports urbains, à la densité des habitants. Généralement dans une gare il faut prévoir des espaces supplémentaires (parking, lieux de stockage, quais réservés aux marchandises et composition des trains). En définitive c’est un “fait” géographique qui transforme le paysage de la ville. A Rome il y a plus de 50 gares, dont 3 sont stations “de tête”: Termini (la principale), Porta San Paolo (Roma-Lido), Piazzale Flaminio (Roma-Viterbo). Les autres sont des stations de transit; parmi lesquelles la plus importante est celle de Tiburtina, tout récemment agrandie et modernisée pour les trains à “grande vitesse”. L’essai étudie quelques gares et leur évolution dans le temps, par exemple Termini (construite en 1867, restaurée en 1950 et en 2000), Ostiense (qui remonte dans sa structure actuelle aux années Trente du siècle passé), Trastevere (à l’origine plus centrale et gare “de tête”) et prend en compte l’ensemble de toutes les autres, les subdivisant par lignes de destinations et grandes répartissions géographiques.

Emeri Farinetti, Angela Paolini
Considerazioni sull’approccio al paesaggio antico attraverso l’esame delle fotografie aeree: il caso della piana di Corvaro nel Cicolano, pp. 207-220 – Abstract 

APPROACHING AN ANCIENT LANDSCAPE THROUGH THE STUDY OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS: THE UPLAND CORVARO PLAIN IN THE CICOLANO REGION
The work presented in this paper constitutes part of a wider research on the historic landscape of the Corvaro plain within the wider Cicolano region (Cicolano Survey project), and aims at offering insights on the diachronical relationship between men and environment through the application of an integrated methodology involving both landscape archaeology and the analysis of aerial photographs. The investigation, still at its initial stage, focuses on the cultural and geomorphological changes in the area and is based on the reconnaissance on air photographs of human and natural marks that past histories left on the landscape. The interpretation of the visible anomalies was carried out following a multi-temporal approach through a comparison of rectified aerial photographs from different periods (mainly 1954 – 1955, 1970, 2000) in a GIS environment. In particular, a critical change in the landscape is marked by the construction of the highway A24 in the 1960s. Anomalies were checked on the ground and jointly analysed as much as possible with the archaeological data available and with geomorphological and geoarchaeological investigations, giving interesting insights especially on the paleo-hydrography of the karstic area. In addition, the examination of available historical maps, analysed jointly with the air photographs, gave information on the more recent history of the area and on toponomastic trends. Moreover, the resulting interpretative datasets were analysed jointly with the results from the intensive and systematic artefact surface survey conducted in the area since 2005, offering an heuristic environment for both a critical examination of the archaeological record and a contextualised interpretation of located sites and detected uses of the landscape.

ACERCARSE A UN ANTIGUO PAISAJE A TRAVÉS EL ESTUDIO DE FOTOGRAFÍAS AÉREAS: LA LLANURA CORVARO EN LA REGIÓN CICOLANO
El trabajo presentado por este articulo es parte de una investigación más amplia sobre el paisaje histórico de la llanura Corvaro dentro de la región de el Cicolano (proyecto Cicolano Survey), y tiene como objetivo ofrecer ideas sobre la relación diacrónica entre el hombre y el ambiente mediante la aplicación de un sistema integrado de metodología que implica tanto la arqueología del paisaje y el análisis de fotografías aéreas. La investigación, todavía en sus etapas iniciales, se centra en los cambios culturales y geomorfológicas de la zona y se basa en el reconocimiento de fotografías aéreas de la pasada historia humana y natural que las marcas dejadas en el paisaje. La interpretación de las anomalías visibles se realizó siguiendo un enfoque multi-temporal a través de una comparación de fotografías aéreas rectificadas de diferentes épocas (sobre todo desde 1954 hasta 1955, 1970, 2000) en un ambiente GIS. En particular, un cambio fundamental en el paisaje está marcado por la construcción de la autopista A24, en la década de 1960. Las anomalías se comprobaron sobre el terreno y analizar conjuntamente la medida de lo posible con los datos arqueológicos disponibles y con las investigaciones geomorfológicas y geoarqueológicas, que ofrecerá una visión interesante sobre todo en la hidrografía paleo-kárstico de la zona. En las adiciones, el examen de las disponibles mapas históricos, fotografías analizadas conjuntamente con el aire, dio información sobre la historia reciente de las moras de la zona y sobre las tendencias toponomástica. Por otra parte, la interpretación que resulta conjuntos de datos fueron analizadas en conjunto con los resultados de la medicion sistemática y intensiva de superficie realizada en el área desde 2005, ofreciendo un ambiente para dos heurística para el examen crítico de los datos arqueológicos y una interpretación contextualizada de los sitios ubicados y detectados y las utilizaciones del paisaje.

Mostre e convegni , pp. 221-226

Recensioni bibliografiche, pp. 227-260